Search - Ovarian Cancer Surgery

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Description

Surgical procedure is the primary treatment for removal of cancerous tumor in the ovaries. The extent of ovarian cancer surgery depends on how far the cancer has spread and patientís general health. Generally complete treatment process involves surgery and chemotherapy. Depending on the type, stage and grade of the cancer, the surgery involves removing one or both the ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus. For advanced stage cancer, the surgeon will first perform debulking (removing as much tumor as possible) and follow it with chemotherapy. In case the cancer has spread outside the ovaries, the surgeon may have to perform other surgeries like Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) Omentectomy (removal of the fat that covers the intestines)Resection of bowel and/or other structures in the bellyAppendectomy CholecystectomySplenectomyLymphadenectomy (elimination of one or more lymph glands) Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) Omentectomy (removal of the fat that covers the intestines) Resection of bowel and/or other structures in the belly Appendectomy Cholecystectomy Splenectomy Lymphadenectomy (elimination of one or more lymph glands)

Symptoms

Indications and symptoms of ovarian cancer are vague and non-specific. In most ovarian cancer cases, by the time the cancer is diagnosed, the tumor has often spread beyond the ovaries. Commonly known symptoms include Bloating or swelling of the bellyPelvic or abdominal painConstipation or loss of appetite or feeling full quicklyChanges in bladder habits including incontinence and increase in frequencyFatigueLower back painPain during sexAbnormal changes in the menstrual cycleAbdominal weight loss or gain Bloating or swelling of the belly Pelvic or abdominal pain Constipation or loss of appetite or feeling full quickly Changes in bladder habits including incontinence and increase in frequency Fatigue Lower back pain Pain during sex Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle Abdominal weight loss or gain Women, who has a combination of above mentioned symptoms on daily basis for a few weeks, should consult a gynecologist.

Pre Procedure

To plan the course of treatment, the doctor will recommend following Blood tests including complete hemogram, renal function tests, liver function tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profilePelvic examination and pap-smear testUrine test Blood tests including complete hemogram, renal function tests, liver function tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profile Pelvic examination and pap-smear test Urine test To ensure that the patient is fit for the surgery, the patient has to undergo the following tests before the surgery Chest X-rayBlood testUrine testElectocardiogram (ECG) Chest X-ray Blood test Urine test Electocardiogram (ECG) For patients who had undertaken pre operative chemotherapy, the toxic effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs will also be considered before the surgery.

During Procedure

Ovarian cancer surgery is perfomed under general anesthesia by a surgical oncologist who specializes in gynecological cancer. For early stage ovarian cancer, the surgery can be performed as minimally invasive procedure or open procedure. While for advance stage cancer, the surgery is performed using open technique.For open procedure, a large incision of approximately 20 cms is made in the abdominal region. In minimal invasive procedure, several minor inicsions are made to insert the surgical instruments and a laparocope (a thin lighted tube with camera).During the surgery for early stage cancer, samples are taken from several areas of abdomen, pelvis and lymph nodes to check the spread of tumor. A layer of fatty tissue that is close to the ovaries, called the omentum, is removed to find cancerous cells. Peritoneal or Abdominal washing is also done to by putting sterile fluid inside the abdomen and removing it. This fluid is also checked for cancer cells.If cancer cells are found in the surrouding organs of the ovary, the surgeon will remove as much of the tumor as possible. This is called debulking. The surgeon may also have to perform hysterectomy, omentectomy, resection of bowel and/or other structures in the belly, appendectomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy and elimination of one or more lymph glands. For early stage ovarian cancer, the surgery can be performed as minimally invasive procedure or open procedure. While for advance stage cancer, the surgery is performed using open technique. For open procedure, a large incision of approximately 20 cms is made in the abdominal region. In minimal invasive procedure, several minor inicsions are made to insert the surgical instruments and a laparocope (a thin lighted tube with camera). During the surgery for early stage cancer, samples are taken from several areas of abdomen, pelvis and lymph nodes to check the spread of tumor. A layer of fatty tissue that is close to the ovaries, called the omentum, is removed to find cancerous cells. Peritoneal or Abdominal washing is also done to by putting sterile fluid inside the abdomen and removing it. This fluid is also checked for cancer cells. If cancer cells are found in the surrouding organs of the ovary, the surgeon will remove as much of the tumor as possible. This is called debulking. The surgeon may also have to perform hysterectomy, omentectomy, resection of bowel and/or other structures in the belly, appendectomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy and elimination of one or more lymph glands.

Post Procedure

Generally, the cather is removed in 3 to 6 days after the surgery and then the patient can go home. If the patient had an advanced cancer, chemotherapy is used to attempt to eliminate any remaining cancer. With surgery and chemotherapy around 30% of women with advanced ovarian cancer are cured. If both the ovaries are removed, the patient will undergo sudden menopause and may face symptoms of menopause for a few weeks. The doctor may recommend hormone replacement therapy to deal with these symptoms. After discharging from the hospital, the doctor will suggest to Do breating and leg exercises to prevent chest infect and clotting of blood in legsEat food or supplements, especially for calcium and vitamin DAvoid driving for 1 to 2 weeksAvoid any strenuous physical activity including sexual intercourse for 4 to 6 weeks Do breating and leg exercises to prevent chest infect and clotting of blood in legs Eat food or supplements, especially for calcium and vitamin D Avoid driving for 1 to 2 weeks Avoid any strenuous physical activity including sexual intercourse for 4 to 6 weeks The patient can take upto 6 weeks to get back to normal routine.

Risk And Complications

Complications of ovarian cancer surgery may be Post operative painInfectionDamage to surrounding organ - bladder, ureter or bowel may be damagedBlood clots may develop in the veins of the legs or pelvis Post operative pain Infection Damage to surrounding organ - bladder, ureter or bowel may be damaged Blood clots may develop in the veins of the legs or pelvis

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